core: Change MOD_* definition to make OR(|) usable
[tmk_keyboard.git] / tmk_core / doc / keymap.md
1 Keymap framework - how to define your keymap
2 ============================================
3 ***NOTE: This is not final version, may be inconsistent with source code and changed occasionally for a while.***
4
5 ## 0. Keymap and layers
6 The **keymap** is an array composed of one or more layers.
7 Each **layer** is an array of **keycodes**, defining **actions** for each physical key.
8 Layers can be activated and deactivated independently. Multiple layers may be active at once, resulting in the currently-active **layer state**. Each layer has an index between 0-31. As active layers are stacked together, higher layers take precedence over lower layers.
9
10 Keymap: 32 Layers Layer: Keycode matrix
11 ----------------- ---------------------
12 stack of layers array_of_keycode[row][column]
13 ____________ precedence _______________________
14 / / | high / ESC / F1 / F2 / F3 ....
15 31 /___________// | /-----/-----/-----/-----
16 30 /___________// | / TAB / Q / W / E ....
17 29 /___________/ | /-----/-----/-----/-----
18 : _:_:_:_:_:__ | : /LCtrl/ A / S / D ....
19 : / : : : : : / | : / : : : :
20 2 /___________// | 2 `--------------------------
21 1 /___________// | 1 `--------------------------
22 0 /___________/ V low 0 `--------------------------
23
24 **Note:** The keymap array is limited to **32 layers**.
25
26
27
28 ### 0.1 Layer state
29 The current keymap layer state is determined by two parameters: the *default layer*, and the individual *layer states*. Changing the default layer is useful for switching key layouts completely; for example, switching to Dvorak, Colemak or Workman instead of QWERTY. Individual layer states, on the other hand, can be used to overlay the base layer with other functions such as navigation keys, function keys (F1-F12), media keys or other actions.
30
31 Because the default layer is really just a special case affecting the overall layer state, it is important to first understand how the layer state is determined.
32
33 #### 0.1.1 The layer state
34 The **layer state** indicates the current on/off status of all layers. It is defined in the firmware by a 32-bit integer, `layer_state`, which stores each layer's on/off status in a single bit: 0 for off, 1 for on. As layers are activated and deactivated, their respective bits are flipped, changing the value of `layer_state`.
35
36 Overlay feature layer
37 --------------------- bit|status
38 ____________ ---+------
39 31 / / 31 | 0
40 30 /___________// -----> 30 | 1
41 29 /___________/ -----> 29 | 1
42 : : | :
43 : ____________ : | :
44 2 / / 2 | 0
45 ,->1 /___________/ -----> 1 | 1
46 | 0 0 | 0
47 | +
48 `--- default_layer = 1 |
49 layer_state = 0x60000002 <-'
50
51 #### 0.1.2 The default layer
52 The **default layer** is the base keymap layer (0-31) which is always active and considered the "bottom" of the stack. When the firmware boots, the default layer is the only active layer. It is set to layer 0 by default, though this can be changed ~~in *config.h*~~ via Boot Magic settings.
53
54 Initial state of Keymap Change base layout
55 ----------------------- ------------------
56
57 31 31
58 30 30
59 29 29
60 : :
61 : : ____________
62 2 ____________ 2 / /
63 1 / / ,->1 /___________/
64 ,->0 /___________/ | 0
65 | |
66 `--- default_layer = 0 `--- default_layer = 1
67 layer_state = 0x00000001 layer_state = 0x00000002
68
69 Note that the `default_layer_state` variable only determines the lowest value to which `layer_state` may be set, and that `default_layer_state` is used by the core firmware when determining the starting value of `layer_state` before applying changes. In other words, the default layer will *always* be set to *on* in `layer_state`.
70
71 The default layer is defined in the firmware by the `default_layer_state` variable, which is identical in format to the `layer_state` variable exlpained above. The value may be changed using the following functions:
72
73 - `default_layer_state_set(state)` sets the state to the specified 32-bit integer value.
74 - AND/OR/XOR functions set the state based on a boolean logic comparison between the current state and the specified 32-bit integer value:
75 - `default_layer_state_and(state)`
76 - `default_layer_state_or(state)`
77 - `default_layer_state_xor(state)`
78
79 For example, to set layer 3 as the default layer:
80
81 ```C
82 // convert 3 to a 32-bit unsigned long value, and set the default layer
83 default_layer_state_set(1UL<<3);
84 ```
85
86
87
88 ### 0.2 Layer Precedence and Transparency
89 Note that ***higher layers have priority in the layer stack***. The firmware starts at the topmost active layer, and works down to the bottom to find the an active keycode. Once the search encounters any keycode other than **`KC_TRNS`** (transparent) on an active layer, the search is halted and the remaining lower layers aren't examined, even if they are active.
90
91 **Note:** a layer must be activated before it may be included in the stack search.
92
93 `KC_TRNS` is a special placeholder which can be used on overlay layers. This allows for the creation of "partial" layers which fall back on the lower layers, eliminating a good deal of repetition in keymap files.
94
95
96
97 ### 0.3 Keymap Example
98 The keymap is defined in the **`uint8_t keymaps[]`** array, a 2-dimensional array of rows and columns corresponding to positions in the keyboard matrix. But most often the layers are defined using C macros to allow for easier reading and editing of the keymap files. To use complex actions you need to define `Fn` action in the **`action_t fn_actions[]`** array.
99
100 This is a keymap example for the [HHKB](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Happy_Hacking_Keyboard) keyboard.
101 This example has three layers: the QWERTY base layer, and two overlay layers for cursor and mousekey control, respectively.
102 In this example,
103
104 `Fn0` is a **momentary layer switching** key--you can use keys on the Cursor layer while holding the key.
105
106 `Fn1` is a momentary layer switching key with tapping function--tapping the key as one would normally use it, sends the semicolon **';'** keycode, while holding the key down switches layers.
107
108 `Fn2` is a **toggle layer switch** key--pressing the key toggles the layer on until you press it again.
109
110 You can find other keymap definitions in file `keymap.c` located on project directories.
111
112 const uint8_t PROGMEM keymaps[][MATRIX_ROWS][MATRIX_COLS] = {
113 /* 0: Qwerty
114 * ,-----------------------------------------------------------.
115 * |Esc| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 0| -| =| \| `|
116 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
117 * |Tab | Q| W| E| R| T| Y| U| I| O| P| [| ]|Backs|
118 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
119 * |Contro| A| S| D| F| G| H| J| K| L|Fn1| '|Enter |
120 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
121 * |Shift | Z| X| C| V| B| N| M| ,| .| /|Shift |Fn0|
122 * `-----------------------------------------------------------'
123 * |Gui|Alt |Space |Alt |Fn2|
124 * `-------------------------------------------'
125 */
126 KEYMAP(ESC, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0, MINS,EQL, BSLS,GRV, \
127 TAB, Q, W, E, R, T, Y, U, I, O, P, LBRC,RBRC,BSPC, \
128 LCTL,A, S, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, FN1, QUOT,ENT, \
129 LSFT,Z, X, C, V, B, N, M, COMM,DOT, SLSH,RSFT,FN0, \
130 LGUI,LALT, SPC, RALT,FN2),
131 /* 1: Cursor(HHKB mode)
132 * ,-----------------------------------------------------------.
133 * |Pwr| F1| F2| F3| F4| F5| F6| F7| F8| F9|F10|F11|F12|Ins|Del|
134 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
135 * |Caps | | | | | | | |Psc|Slk|Pus|Up | |Backs|
136 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
137 * |Contro|VoD|VoU|Mut| | | *| /|Hom|PgU|Lef|Rig|Enter |
138 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
139 * |Shift | | | | | | +| -|End|PgD|Dow|Shift | |
140 * `-----------------------------------------------------------'
141 * |Gui |Alt |Space |Alt |Gui|
142 * `--------------------------------------------'
143 */
144 KEYMAP(PWR, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10, F11, F12, INS, DEL, \
145 CAPS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,PSCR,SLCK,PAUS,UP, TRNS,BSPC, \
146 LCTL,VOLD,VOLU,MUTE,TRNS,TRNS,PAST,PSLS,HOME,PGUP,LEFT,RGHT,ENT, \
147 LSFT,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,PPLS,PMNS,END, PGDN,DOWN,RSFT,TRNS, \
148 LGUI,LALT, SPC, RALT,RGUI),
149 /* 2: Mousekey
150 * ,-----------------------------------------------------------.
151 * |Esc| F1| F2| F3| F4| F5| F6| F7| F8| F9|F10|F11|F12|Ins|Del|
152 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
153 * |Tab | | | | | |MwL|MwD|MwU|MwR| | | |Backs|
154 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
155 * |Contro| | | | | |McL|McD|McU|McR| | |Return |
156 * |-----------------------------------------------------------|
157 * |Shift | | | | |Mb3|Mb2|Mb1|Mb4|Mb5| |Shift | |
158 * `-----------------------------------------------------------'
159 * |Gui |Alt |Mb1 |Alt | |
160 * `--------------------------------------------'
161 * Mc: Mouse Cursor / Mb: Mouse Button / Mw: Mouse Wheel
162 */
163 KEYMAP(ESC, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10, F11, F12, INS, DEL, \
164 TAB, TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,WH_L,WH_D,WH_U,WH_R,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,BSPC, \
165 LCTL,TRNS,ACL0,ACL1,ACL2,TRNS,MS_L,MS_D,MS_U,MS_R,TRNS,QUOT,ENT, \
166 LSFT,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,TRNS,BTN3,BTN2,BTN1,BTN4,BTN5,SLSH,RSFT,TRNS, \
167 LGUI,LALT, BTN1, RALT,TRNS),
168 };
169
170 const action_t PROGMEM fn_actions[] = {
171 ACTION_LAYER_MOMENTARY(1), // FN0
172 ACTION_LAYER_TAP_KEY(2, KC_SCLN), // FN1
173 ACTION_LAYER_TOGGLE(2), // FN2
174 };
175
176
177
178
179 ## 1. Keycode
180 See [`common/keycode.h`](../common/keycode.h) or keycode table below for the detail. Keycode is internal **8bit code** to indicate action performed on key in keymap. Keycode has `KC_` prefixed symbol respectively. Most of keycodes like `KC_A` have simple action registers key to host on press and unregister on release, while some of other keycodes has some special actions like `Fn` keys, Media control keys, System control keys and Mousekeys.
181
182 ***In `KEYMAP()` macro you should omit prefix part `KC_` of keycode to keep keymap compact.*** For example, just use `A` instead you place `KC_A` in `KEYMAP()`. Some keycodes has 4-letter **short name** in addition to descriptive name, you'll prefer short one in `KEYMAP()`.
183
184 ### 1.0 Other key
185 - `KC_NO` for no action
186 - `KC_TRNS` for layer transparency (See above)
187
188 ### 1.1 Normal key
189 - `KC_A` to `KC_Z`, `KC_1` to `KC_0` for alpha numeric key
190 - `KC_MINS`, `KC_EQL`, `KC_GRV`, `KC_RBRC`, `KC_LBRC`, `KC_COMM`, `KC_DOT`, `KC_BSLS`, `KC_SLSH`, `KC_SCLN`, `KC_QUOT`
191 - `KC_ESC`, `KC_TAB`, `KC_SPC`, `KC_BSPC`, `KC_ENT`, `KC_DEL`, `KC_INS`
192 - `KC_UP`, `KC_DOWN`, `KC_RGHT`, `KC_LEFT`, `KC_PGUP`, `KC_PGDN`, `KC_HOME`, `KC_END`
193 - `KC_CAPS`, `KC_NLCK`, `KC_SLCK`, `KC_PSCR`, `KC_PAUS`, `KC_APP`, `KC_F1` to `KC_F24`
194 - `KC_P1` to `KC_P0`, `KC_PDOT`, `KC_PCMM`, `KC_PSLS`, `KC_PAST`, `KC_PMNS`, `KC_PPLS`, `KC_PEQL`, `KC_PENT` for keypad.
195
196 ### 1.2 Modifier
197 There are 8 modifiers which has discrimination between left and right.
198
199 - `KC_LCTL` and `KC_RCTL` for Control
200 - `KC_LSFT` and `KC_RSFT` for Shift
201 - `KC_LALT` and `KC_RALT` for Alt
202 - `KC_LGUI` and `KC_RGUI` for Windows key or Command key in Mac
203
204 ### 1.3 Mousekey
205 - `KC_MS_U`, `KC_MS_D`, `KC_MS_L`, `KC_MS_R` for mouse cursor
206 - `KC_WH_U`, `KC_WH_D`, `KC_WH_L`, `KC_WH_R` for mouse wheel
207 - `KC_BTN1`, `KC_BTN2`, `KC_BTN3`, `KC_BTN4`, `KC_BTN5` for mouse buttons
208
209 ### 1.4 System & Media key
210 - `KC_PWR`, `KC_SLEP`, `KC_WAKE` for Power, Sleep, Wake
211 - `KC_MUTE`, `KC_VOLU`, `KC_VOLD` for audio volume control
212 - `KC_MNXT`, `KC_MPRV`, `KC_MSTP`, `KC_MPLY`, `KC_MSEL` for media control
213 - `KC_MAIL`, `KC_CALC`, `KC_MYCM` for application launch
214 - `KC_WSCH`, `KC_WHOM`, `KC_WBAK`, `KC_WFWD`, `KC_WSTP`, `KC_WREF`, `KC_WFAV` for web browser operation
215
216 ### 1.5 Fn key
217 `KC_FNnn` are keycodes for `Fn` key which not given any actions at the beginning unlike most of keycodes has its own inborn action. To use these keycodes in `KEYMAP()` you need to assign action you want at first. Action of `Fn` key is defined in `action_t fn_actions[]` and its index of the array is identical with number part of `KC_FNnn`. Thus `KC_FN0` keycode indicates the action defined in first element of the array. ***32 `Fn` keys can be defined at most.***
218
219 ### 1.6 Keycode Table
220 See keycode table in [`doc/keycode.txt`](./keycode.txt) for description of keycodes.
221
222 In regard to implementation side most of keycodes are identical with [HID usage][HID_usage](pdf) sent to host for real and some virtual keycodes are defined to support special actions.
223 [HID_usage]: http://www.usb.org/developers/hidpage/Hut1_12v2.pdf
224
225
226
227 ## 2. Action
228 See [`common/action_code.h`](../common/action_code.h). Action is a **16bit code** and defines function to perform on events of a key like press, release, holding and tapping.
229
230 Most of keys just register 8bit scancode to host, but to support other complex features needs 16bit extended action codes internally. However, using 16bit action codes in keymap results in double size in memory compared to using just keycodes. To avoid this waste 8bit keycodes are used in `KEYMAP()` instead of action codes.
231
232 ***You can just use keycodes of `Normal key`, `Modifier`, `Mousekey` and `System & Media key` in keymap*** to indicate corresponding actions instead of using action codes. While ***to use other special actions you should use keycode of `Fn` key defined in `fn_actions[]`.***
233
234
235 ### 2.1 Key Action
236 This is a simple action that registers scancodes(HID usage in fact) to host on press event of key and unregister on release.
237
238 #### Parameters
239 + **mods**: { ` MOD_LCTL`, ` MOD_LSFT`, ` MOD_LALT`, ` MOD_LGUI`,
240 ` MOD_RCTL`, ` MOD_RSFT`, ` MOD_RALT`, ` MOD_RGUI` }
241 + **key**: keycode
242
243
244 #### 2.1.1 Normal key and Modifier
245 ***This action usually won't be used expressly in keymap*** because you can just use keycodes in `KEYMAP()` instead.
246
247 You can define these actions on *'A'* key and *'left shift'* modifier with:
248
249 ACTION_KEY(KC_A)
250 ACTION_KEY(KC_LSFT)
251
252 #### 2.1.2 Modified key
253 This action is comprised of modifiers and a key.
254
255 Modified keys can be defined as below. Say you want to assign a key to `Shift + 1` to get character *'!'* or `Alt + Tab` to switch application windows.
256
257 ACTION_MODS_KEY(MOD_LSFT, KC_1)
258 ACTION_MODS_KEY(MOD_LALT, KC_TAB)
259 ACTION_MODS_KEY(MOD_LALT | MOD_LSFT, KC_TAB)
260
261 These are identical to examples above.
262
263 ACTION_KEY(MOD_LSFT | KC_1)
264 ACTION_KEY(MOD_LALT | KC_TAB)
265 ACTION_KEY(MOD_LSFT | MOD_LALT | KC_TAB)
266
267 #### 2.1.3 Multiple Modifiers
268 Registers multiple modifiers with pressing a key. To specify multiple modifiers use `|`.
269
270 ACTION_MODS(MOD_LALT | MOD_LSFT)
271 ACTION_MODS(MOD_LALT | MOD_LSFT | MOD_LCTL)
272
273 These are identical to examples above.
274
275 ACTION_KEY(MOD_LALT | MOD_LSFT, KC_NO)
276 ACTION_KEY(MOD_LALT | MOD_LSFT | MOD_LCTL, KC_NO)
277
278 #### 2.1.3 Modifier with Tap key([Dual role][dual_role])
279 Works as a modifier key while holding, but registers a key on tap(press and release quickly).
280
281
282 ACTION_MODS_TAP_KEY(MOD_RCTL, KC_ENT)
283
284
285
286 ### 2.2 Layer Action
287 These actions operate layers of keymap.
288
289 #### Parameters
290 You can specify a **target layer** of action and **when the action is executed**. Some actions take a **bit value** for bitwise operation.
291
292
293 + **layer**: `0`-`31`
294 + **on**: { `ON_PRESS` | `ON_RELEASE` | `ON_BOTH` }
295 + **bits**: 4-bit value and 1-bit mask bit
296
297
298 #### 2.2.1 Default Layer
299 Default Layer is a layer which always is valid and referred to when actions is not defined on other overlay layers.
300
301 This sets Default Layer to given parameter `layer` and activate it.
302
303 ACTION_DEFAULT_LAYER_SET(layer)
304
305
306 #### 2.2.2 Momentary
307 Turns on `layer` momentarily while holding, in other words it activates when key is pressed and deactivate when released.
308
309 ACTION_LAYER_MOMENTARY(layer)
310
311
312 #### 2.2.3 Toggle Switch
313 Turns on `layer` with first type(press and release) and turns off with next.
314
315 ACTION_LAYER_TOGGLE(layer)
316
317
318 #### 2.2.4 Momentary Switch with tap key
319 Turns on `layer` momentary while holding, but registers key on tap(press and release quickly).
320
321 ACTION_LAYER_TAP_KEY(layer, key)
322
323
324 #### 2.2.5 Momentary Switch with tap toggle
325 Turns on `layer` momentary while holding and toggles it with serial taps.
326
327 ACTION_LAYER_TAP_TOGGLE(layer)
328
329
330 #### 2.2.6 Invert state of layer
331 Inverts current state of `layer`. If the layer is on it becomes off with this action.
332
333 ACTION_LAYER_INVERT(layer, on)
334
335
336 #### 2.2.7 Turn On layer
337 Turns on layer state.
338
339 ACTION_LAYER_ON(layer, on)
340
341 Turns on layer state on press and turns off on release.
342
343 ACTION_LAYER_ON_OFF(layer)
344
345
346 #### 2.2.8 Turn Off layer
347 Turns off layer state.
348
349 ACTION_LAYER_OFF(layer, on)
350
351 Turns off layer state on press and activates on release.
352
353 ACTION_LAYER_OFF_ON(layer)
354
355
356 #### 2.2.9 Set layer
357 Turn on layer only.
358 `layer_state = (1<<layer) [layer: 0-31]`
359
360 ACTION_LAYER_SET(layer, on)
361
362 Turns on layer only and clear all layer on release..
363
364 ACTION_LAYER_SET_CLEAR(layer)
365
366
367 #### 2.2.10 Bitwise operation
368
369 **part** indicates which part of 32bit layer state(0-7). **bits** is 5-bit value. **on** indicates when the action is executed.
370
371 ACTION_LAYER_BIT_AND(part, bits, on)
372 ACTION_LAYER_BIT_OR(part, bits, on)
373 ACTION_LAYER_BIT_XOR(part, bits, on)
374 ACTION_LAYER_BIT_SET(part, bits, on)
375
376 These actions works with parameters as following code.
377
378 uint8_t shift = part*4;
379 uint32_t mask = (bits&0x10) ? ~(0xf<<shift) : 0;
380 uint32_t layer_state = layer_state <bitop> ((bits<<shift)|mask);
381
382
383 Default Layer also has bitwise operations, they are executed when key is released.
384
385 ACTION_DEFAULT_LAYER_BIT_AND(part, bits)
386 ACTION_DEFAULT_LAYER_BIT_OR(part, bits)
387 ACTION_DEFAULT_LAYER_BIT_XOR(part, bits)
388 ACTION_DEFAULT_LAYER_BIT_SET(part, bits)
389
390
391 ### 2.3 Macro action
392 `Macro` actions allow you to register a complex sequence of keystrokes when a key is pressed, where macros are simple sequences of keypresses.
393
394 ACTION_MACRO(id)
395 ACTION_MACRO_TAP(id)
396
397 `id` is an 8-bit user-defined value the macro getter function can use to pick the specific macro.
398
399
400 #### 2.3.1 Implementing Macro getter function
401 To implement `macro` functions, the macro lookup list must be implemented:
402
403 const macro_t *action_get_macro(keyrecord_t *record, uint8_t id, uint8_t opt);
404
405 The function must always return a valid macro, and default implementation of `action_get_macro` always returns `MACRO_NONE` which has no effect.
406
407 #### 2.3.1.1 Limitations
408 Similar to the Function Action system, the selector functions is passed a `keyrecord_t` object, so it can inspect the key state (e.g. different macros on key press or release), and key itself.
409
410 Unlike the Function Action system,`macros` are pre-recorded key sequences, so you can only select from a list. If you want to use dynamic macros then you should look at the more complex function action system.
411
412 #### 2.3.2 Implementing/Defining Macro sequences
413 Macros are of the form (must be wrapped by the `MACRO` function, and end with an `END` mark)
414
415 MACRO( ..., END )
416
417 Within each macro, the following commands can be used:
418
419 - **I()** change interval of stroke.
420 - **D()** press key
421 - **U()** release key
422 - **T()** type key(press and release)
423 - **W()** wait
424 - **SM()** store modifier state
425 - **RM()** restore modifier state
426 - **CM()** clear modifier state
427
428 e.g.:
429
430 MACRO( D(LSHIFT), D(D), END ) // hold down LSHIFT and D - will print 'D'
431 MACRO( U(D), U(LSHIFT), END ) // release U and LSHIFT keys (an event.pressed == False counterpart for the one above)
432 MACRO( I(255), T(H), T(E), T(L), T(L), W(255), T(O), END ) // slowly print out h-e-l-l---o
433
434 #### 2.3.2 Examples
435
436 in keymap.c, define `action_get_macro`
437
438 const macro_t *action_get_macro(keyrecord_t *record, uint8_t id, uint8_t opt)
439 {
440 switch (id) {
441 case 0:
442 return (record->event.pressed ?
443 MACRO( I(0), T(H), T(E), T(L), T(L), W(255), T(O), END ) :
444 MACRO_NONE );
445 case 1:
446 return (record->event.pressed ?
447 MACRO( D(LALT), D(TAB), END ) :
448 MACRO( U(TAB), END ));
449 }
450 return MACRO_NONE;
451 }
452
453 in keymap.c, bind items in `fn_actions` to the macro function
454
455 const action_t PROGMEM fn_actions[] = {
456 [0] = ACTION_MACRO(0), // will print 'hello' for example
457 [1] = ACTION_MACRO(1),
458 };
459
460
461 ### 2.4 Function action
462 ***TBD***
463
464 There are two type of action, normal `Function` and tappable `Function`.
465 These actions call user defined function with `id`, `opt`, and key event information as arguments.
466
467 #### 2.4.1 Function
468 To define normal `Function` action in keymap use this.
469
470 ACTION_FUNCTION(id, opt)
471
472 #### 2.4.2 Function with tap
473 To define tappable `Function` action in keymap use this.
474
475 ACTION_FUNCTION_TAP(id, opt)
476
477 #### 2.4.3 Implement user function
478 `Function` actions can be defined freely with C by user in callback function:
479
480 void action_function(keyrecord_t *record, uint8_t id, uint8_t opt);
481
482 This C function is called every time key is operated, argument `id` selects action to be performed and `opt` can be used for option. Function `id` can be 0-255 and `opt` can be 0-15.
483
484 `keyrecord_t` is comprised of key event and tap count. `keyevent_t` indicates which and when key is pressed or released. From `tap_count` you can know tap state, 0 means no tap. These information will be used in user function to decide how action of key is performed.
485
486 typedef struct {
487 keyevent_t event;
488 uint8_t tap_count;
489 } keyrecord_t;
490
491 typedef struct {
492 key_t key;
493 bool pressed;
494 uint16_t time;
495 } keyevent_t;
496
497 typedef struct {
498 uint8_t col;
499 uint8_t row;
500 } key_t;
501
502 ***TODO: sample implementation***
503 See `keyboard/hhkb/keymap.c` for sample.
504
505
506
507 ### 2.5 Backlight Action
508 These actions control the backlight.
509
510 #### 2.5.1 Change backlight level
511 Increase backlight level.
512
513 ACTION_BACKLIGHT_INCREASE()
514
515 Decrease backlight level.
516
517 ACTION_BACKLIGHT_DECREASE()
518
519 Step through backlight levels.
520
521 ACTION_BACKLIGHT_STEP()
522
523 Turn a specific backlight level on or off.
524
525 ACTION_BACKLIGHT_LEVEL(1)
526
527 #### 2.5.2 Turn on / off backlight
528 Turn the backlight on and off without changing level.
529
530 ACTION_BACKLIGHT_TOGGLE()
531
532
533
534 ## 3. Layer switching Example
535 There are some ways to switch layer with 'Layer' actions.
536
537 ### 3.1 Momentary switching
538 Momentary switching changes layer only while holding Fn key.
539
540 This action makes 'Layer 1' active(valid) on key press event and inactive on release event. Namely you can overlay a layer on lower layers or default layer temporarily with this action.
541
542 ACTION_LAYER_MOMENTARY(1)
543
544
545 Note that after switching on press the actions on destination layer(Layer 1) are performed.
546 ***Thus you shall need to place an action to go back on destination layer***, or you will be stuck in destination layer without way to get back. Usually you need to place same action or 'KC_TRNS` on destination layer to get back.
547
548
549 ### 3.2 Toggle switching
550 Toggle switching performed after releasing a key. With this action you can keep staying on the destination layer until you type the key again to return.
551
552 This performs toggle switching action of 'Layer 2'.
553
554 ACTION_LAYER_TOGGLE(2)
555
556
557
558 ### 3.3 Momentary switching with Tap key
559 These actions switch a layer only while holding a key but register the key on tap. **Tap** means to press and release a key quickly.
560
561 ACTION_LAYER_TAP_KEY(2, KC_SCLN)
562
563 With this you can place a layer switching action on normal key like ';' without losing its original key register function. This action allows you to have layer switching action without necessity of a dedicated key. It means you can have it even on home row of keyboard.
564
565
566
567 ### 3.4 Momentary switching with Tap Toggle
568 This switches layer only while holding a key but toggle layer with several taps. **Tap** means to press and release key quickly.
569
570 ACTION_LAYER_TAP_TOGGLE(1)
571
572 Number of taps can be configured with `TAPPING_TOGGLE` in `config.h`, `5` by default.
573
574
575
576 ### 3.5 Momentary switching with Modifiers
577 This registers modifier key(s) simultaneously with layer switching.
578
579 ACTION_LAYER_MODS(2, MOD_LSFT | MOD_LALT)
580
581 You can combine four modifiers at most but cannot use both left and right modifiers at a time, either left or right modiiers only can be allowed.
582
583
584 ## 4. Tapping
585 Tapping is to press and release a key quickly. Tapping speed is determined with setting of `TAPPING_TERM`, which can be defined in `config.h`, 200ms by default.
586
587 ### 4.1 Tap Key
588 This is a feature to assign normal key action and modifier including layer switching to just same one physical key. This is a kind of [Dual role key][dual_role]. It works as modifier when holding the key but registers normal key when tapping.
589
590 Modifier with tap key:
591
592 ACTION_MODS_TAP_KEY(MOD_RSFT, KC_GRV)
593
594 Layer switching with tap key:
595
596 ACTION_LAYER_TAP_KEY(2, KC_SCLN)
597
598 [dual_role]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modifier_key#Dual-role_keys
599
600
601 ### 4.2 Tap Toggle
602 This is a feature to assign both toggle layer and momentary switch layer action to just same one physical key. It works as momentary layer switch when holding a key but toggle switch with several taps.
603
604 ACTION_LAYER_TAP_TOGGLE(1)
605
606
607 ### 4.3 Oneshot Modifier
608 This runs onetime effects which modify only on just one following key. It works as normal modifier key when holding down while oneshot modifier when tapping.
609
610 ACTION_MODS_ONESHOT(MOD_LSFT)
611
612 Say you want to type 'The', you have to push and hold Shift key before type 't' then release it before type 'h' and 'e', otherwise you'll get 'THe' or 'the' unintentionally. With Oneshot Modifier you can tap Shift then type 't', 'h' and 'e' normally, you don't need to holding Shift key properly here. This mean you can release Shift before 't' is pressed down.
613
614 Oneshot effect is cancel unless following key is pressed down within `ONESHOT_TIMEOUT` of `config.h`. No timeout when it is `0` or not defined.
615
616
617 ### 4.4 Tap Toggle Mods
618 Similar to layer tap toggle, this works as a momentary modifier when holding, but toggles on with several taps. A single tap will 'unstick' the modifier again.
619
620 ACTION_MODS_TAP_TOGGLE(MOD_LSFT)
621
622
623
624
625 ## 5. Legacy Keymap
626 This was used in prior version and still works due to legacy support code in `common/keymap.c`. Legacy keymap doesn't support many of features that new keymap offers. ***It is not recommended to use Legacy Keymap for new project.***
627
628 To enable Legacy Keymap support define this macro in `config.h`.
629
630 #define USE_LEGACY_KEYMAP
631
632 Legacy Keymap uses two arrays `fn_layer[]` and `fn_keycode[]` to define Fn key. The index of arrays corresponds with postfix number of `Fn` key. Array `fn_layer[]` indicates destination layer to switch and `fn_keycode[]` has keycodes to send when tapping `Fn` key.
633
634 In following setting example, `Fn0`, `Fn1` and `Fn2` switch layer to 1, 2 and 2 respectively. `Fn2` registers `Space` key when tapping while `Fn0` and `Fn1` doesn't send any key.
635
636 const uint8_t PROGMEM fn_layer[] = {
637 1, // Fn0
638 2, // Fn1
639 2, // Fn2
640 };
641
642 const uint8_t PROGMEM fn_keycode[] = {
643 KC_NO, // Fn0
644 KC_NO, // Fn1
645 KC_SPC, // Fn2
646 };
647
648
649 ## 6. Terminology
650 ***TBD***
651 ### keymap
652 is comprised of multiple layers.
653 ### layer
654 is matrix of keycodes.
655 ### key
656 is physical button on keyboard or logical switch on software.
657 ### keycode
658 is codes used on firmware.
659 ### action
660 is a function assigned on a key.
661 ### layer transparency
662 Using transparent keycode one layer can refer key definition on other lower layer.
663 ### layer precedence
664 Top layer has higher precedence than lower layers.
665 ### tapping
666 is to press and release a key quickly.
667 ### Fn key
668 is key which executes a special action like layer switching, mouse key, macro or etc.
669 ### dual role key
670 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modifier_key#Dual-role_keys>
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